The article is a continuation of the series of articles for disruptive technologies for smart cities we started publishing in April, 2020. It is result of the ongoing Erasmus+ project Smart technologies by design (Smart by Design) and is based on the outputs produced by the project partners GAIA & DEUSTO and ARIES T.
Augmented Reality (AR) is the enhanced version of reality where live direct or indirect views of physical real-world environments are augmented with superimposed computer-generated images over a user's view of the real-world. In other words, AR is the integration of digital information with the user’s environment in real time.
It is common for people to confuse it with Virtual Reality (VR), but AR uses an already existing natural environment and superimposes on top of it. Users of AR experience a new and improved natural world with the interaction of virtual information which provides different interactive options. On the other hand, VR creates a totally new artificial environment.
Even if the technology, apparently, is perfect for leisure and enjoyment, the truth is that AR is becoming very useful in many other industries such as healthcare, public sector, tourism, marketing, etc.
Augmented Reality embraces different type of technologies. All of them have different own use cases:
There are some components required for AR devices: sensors, cameras, projectors, processors and reflection machines.
As mentioned above, there are many different types of applications of Augmented Reality in different use cases. Below are some use cases and providers:
There are many international standards for the application of the Augmented Reality in multiple sectors. Some of the most relevant ones:
Standards under development
Augmented Reality is a very new technology that is still working in setting standards. Especially the IEEE Standards Association is working on new standards for virtual and augmented realities, with a working group establishing categories for devices. Standards related to video quality, user interfaces, and file formats. Even if there are already a great number of projects and standards identified, more will be discussed due to the different sectors able to apply them.
Some of the standards under development are:
Augmented Reality has an enormous potential in most of the sectors. Some of the potential uses are:
This article is a continuation of an article we published in August 2020 - “Disruptive Technologies for Smart Cities – Cloud Computing” for the presentation of the interim results of the ongoing Erasmus+ project Smart technologies by design (Smart by Design). The article is based on the materials produced by the project partners GAIA & DEUSTO.
Data Analytics is the approach that allows companies to analyse the data they generate in their activity enabling them to draw conclusions that affect their business. Better known as Big Data, companies manage this information in order to adopt strategies that will help them to improve their business turnover. Thus, it helps them improve operational efficiency, customer user experience and also allows them to improve their business models. All these data generated by companies in their activity is one of the concerns they have to face today. They should evaluate the importance of this information, what information they will have to store or even what part of all these data they can sell.
Data analysis means the translation of information into opportunities for companies to take advantage of all these data (Schneider. 2017). This is why, “Data Analytics” is also called as a translator or business generator, because it allows to explore personalised solutions to carry out your projects. At present, information as services is a business model that is expanding wherein increasingly more businesses are seeking to monetise the information they obtain. According to the International Statistical Institute, businesses that use information will see their productivity increase by 430 billion dollars by 2020 in contrast with those that do not use it.
Services offered by platforms related to information analysis is growing along with new solutions in terms of storage capacities as well as processing. Some of the platforms that currently exist are as follows:
The first standard on big data was published in the end of 2015 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), hence, there are already international rules and standards. ITU-T Y.3600: provides requisites, capabilities and use cases of cloud computing based big data (Y.BigDatareqts, 2015).
Big Data when merged with Cloud Computing offers the ability to collect, store, analyse, visualise and handle large amounts of data, which cannot be analysed with traditional technologies (Iglesias. A, 2015).
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